Companies around the world are being urged to close the digital gender gap, especially after International Women’s Day. Although progress has been made, the gap remains in many countries, prompting questions about whether those in the industry are doing enough to address it.

The development of new technologies has created demand for specialized workers with specific training, but women still face more challenges than men in this field due to the persistent gender gap. As the world undergoes fundamental transformation, women’s role in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), needs to be reassessed.

According to a PwC report titled Women in Work, Insights from Middle East and North Africa, the UAE, KSA and Egypt already have national programmes to boost the number of working women. PwC’s research shows that 66% of all respondents believe that governments should intervene in private-sector companies and set targets for gender diversity. 

In the UAE, national policies include a draft law to ensure men and women receive equal pay. Another example is in Saudi Arabia, as part of Vision 2030, Saudi Government’s goal is to increase women’s participation in the workforce.

Hoda A. Alkhzaimi, President of Emirates Digital Association for Women, says there are many positive steps being taken.

“Across various countries in the region, there are initiatives aimed at breaking the toxic cycles that perpetuate the gender gap in the tech industry. These initiatives include mentorship and active championing and endorsement programs, active networking events, scholarships, and training programs specifically designed for women in lead tech initiatives. Some companies are also implementing policies that promote work-life balance and flexible work arrangements to support women in their careers,”  says Alkhzaimi.

However, to achieve gender-equitable participation in the industry a multi-faceted approach is required. 

“While equal pay is important as it’s a lead practice granted in governmental entities in the UAE for example, it’s not the only solution,” says Alkhzaimi. “Ensuring women have equal opportunities to advance into senior and leadership tech roles and increasing the number of women in leadership positions is crucial. We need more women CEOs and Women Board members and women chairpersons.”

Unconscious biases and a lack of female role models continue to be reasons why young women do not pursue a career in technology. The industry needs to work together to remove the prejudice that technology is a gender-specific field. Outreach to women is a critical way to increase the number of women in the field. 

“We need to build a framework to address gender washing which is a term used to describe the practice of organizations using pro-women messages and branding to promote their mission, without actually implementing meaningful changes to support gender equality. This can include using pro-female participation slogans or images in advertising campaigns or claiming to support gender diversity and inclusion without taking concrete actions to address gender inequality within the company or industry”. 

Gender washing can be seen as a form of exploitation that capitalizes on gender inclusion values and aspirations without actually supporting them. This can as well be a phenomenon of rising women’s communities.  It’s essential for organizations to back up their messaging with real action to create a culture of gender equality and inclusivity.

“To prevent gender washing, it’s important for entities to take authentic actions to address gender inequality and discrimination, rather than simply using pro-women language and imagery in addition to passive initiatives for marketing purposes. It is critical to conduct a thorough audit of the company’s policies and practices to identify areas of gender inequality. As well as implementing authentic efficient policies and practices that promote gender equality, such as equal pay, equal opportunities for advancement, and a culture of inclusivity and respect. Avoid using pro-women language or inclusivity language and imagery for marketing purposes without backing it up with real action,” the President of Emirates Digital Association for Women adds.

The ‘broken rung’ has long restricted women from achieving managerial positions in IT, and the latest joint and McKinsey Women in the Workplace report finds underrepresentation in leadership roles is still a problem, and more so for women of color.

Teradyne CIO Shannon Gath, who has a passion for helping women in STEM leadership roles to be successful in their careers, emphasizes education as a vital starting point for understanding the challenges women face in getting ahead in IT. The Boston-based test-equipment manufacturer recently enlisted McKinsey to conduct education sessions with leaders across the company to help them understand specific issues women confront in advancing their careers.

Generate awareness of the nature of the problem within an organization is key, Gath says. “There are still too many people who don’t understand the problem itself and that it’s systemic,” she says. “If they’re not understanding there’s a problem, you’re not moving forward.”

More than simply mentoring

Mentoring programs have often been seen as the solution, but they’re not always effective. Lack of program structure, poor mentor and mentee matching, and inconsistent commitment between participants can impede effectiveness, says Dr. Christie Struckman, a research vice president at Gartner, who argues that these programs often intimate that something needs to be fixed in the women participants. Instead, mentoring programs should be “more about providing space to talk about career aspirations, supporting evaluating options, strategizing how to get opportunities, and providing assurance,” she says.

Gath sponsors a project at Teradyne to learn and adopt successful strategies from organizations leading the charge for diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI). “We’ve heard of the different programs as we looked at mentorship and sponsorship, and all of them have their pros and cons,” she says.

Shannon Gath, CIO, Teradyne 


But when Gath and her team met with an organization that had been conducting what it called mentoring circles for about five years, something struck a chord. The mentoring circles gather women who are at around the same job level and are interested in growing in a certain area, and pair them with two executives as mentors. The circles meet on a regular basis for six months to do a deep dive on relevant topics.

Teradyne piloted this approach, targeting points at which leadership rungs are broken for women, with the aim of addressing the hurdle, Gath says. The key is using metrics to focus efforts where it’s needed most. “We looked at our data and said, ‘Those are the points,’” she says. “So we sent out invites to the women who fall into that ‘rung’ category with some suggested topics, and asked if they’re interested in any of them and want to participate in a mentoring circle. What’s so special about it is it’s exactly what we need for where we are right now.”

Gath knows that having the right match can make or break the experience of two-way mentoring. And sponsorships help open the door for only one or two women. “You don’t get the broader impact,” she says.

Through Teradyne’s mentoring circles, women are paired with two mentors, providing a better chance of connecting and getting value from the program. This approach also removes the pressure of a one-on-one relationship, and having women circled together with other women extends the benefits by helping them build a support network — something that’s vital to career development. “It’s connecting women who are challenged with the same thing you are,” Gath says. “So even after the mentoring circle is complete, they are your sounding boards going forward, and you should be able to carry that with you for the rest of your career.”

Avoid tokenizing the women in leadership roles

To support women in leadership roles, it’s important to avoid behaviors that marginalize them, according to Gartner’s Struckman, who says it can be a case of death by a thousand cuts, in which many small actions mount up to behaviors that tell women they’re not valued, something that can impact job satisfaction and retention. “Women aren’t going to stay someplace where they’re marginalized when they know they can get hired elsewhere,” she says.

But to address marginalization, you must first be able to recognize it, Struckman says, adding that organizations should work to ensure awareness about behaviors that create an environment where people feel this way. Struckman also advises confronting certain behaviors with clear expectations of what is expected (while not demonizing people), and communicating expectations publicly while supporting marginalized people privately.

For women in senior leadership positions, Struckman says it’s also important to avoid tokenizing them.

“Very often when there’s a woman in leadership, she is the only female,” she says. “She gets asked to lead the ‘Women in IT’ activities, serve as the primary recruiter and interviewer of diverse talent, and asked to mentor or coach a large host of other women.”

These additional responsibilities are rarely acknowledged and considered a ‘side of the desk’ activity, adding additional burdens on time and responsibilities. Instead, Struckman suggests having males serve as allies by acting in these roles where possible. “And where organizations offer things such as flexibility, it should be a talent retention policy that applies across the board, and not just a female retention strategy,” she says.

A positive culture sets the tone

Achieving gender equity takes a multifaceted approach stretching from talent acquisition and retention, to opportunities and promotions that help support women, explains The Hartford CIO Deepa Soni. The insurance company, soon to be recognized with a Catalyst award for its commitment to advancing women and equity, has adopted an organization-wide approach that includes accountability measures, addressing unconscious bias in talent management, and revising other processes. And culture is a vital piece of the puzzle.

Deepa Soni, CIO, The Hartford

The Hartford

Culture at The Hartford is the crown jewel that demonstrates it values equity, “where actions speak for themselves,” Soni says. The company is pursuing an aggressive technology and data agenda, and the plan is to ensure women are a big part of that, she explains.

“We’re strengthening our sponsorship, mentorship, and coaching, and stretch assignments and talent mobility,” she says. “These are all the tactics we’re taking to make sure we advance our women, from hiring them at the intern level to elevating them to the first management level, and getting them to senior leadership roles.”

Soni acknowledges these initiatives, and the results, are years in the making and take consistent commitment, but real progress can be made. “It’s a multidimensional approach coupled with a strong culture that actually amplifies the impact of these strategies,” she says.

Gartner’s Struckman agrees that culture plays a huge role in creating an environment where marginalizing isn’t okay, and where supporting and building each other up is the norm. If, for instance, the expectation is that to progress, you must work over 60 hours a week and at any hour of the day, then women won’t stay.

“Culture tells employees what is expected, accepted, and respected,” Struckman says, adding that we still live in a society where women shoulder most childcare responsibilities, preventing them from being able to drop everything and take care of work unexpectedly. “In some IT organizations, the ‘hero mentality’ is prevalent and rewarded specifically, and thus becomes the definition of what is respected in the workplace,” she says.

She also cautions organizations to pay attention to the managers of women when looking at how they’re faring in relation to promotions and opportunities. “When a woman doesn’t get promoted, most of the focus is on what’s wrong with her and what can be done to improve her,” she says. “But there might not be anything wrong with her. Instead, the lack of promotion is based on a bias of her manager.”

Although we don’t have a systemic way to evaluate bias, leadership needs to look out for it, she says. “If a manager fails to get their women promoted at rates equal to their male employees, that’s more likely a failure of the manager than on the females,” she says. To counter this hurdle, Struckman encourages managers to put more women into new experiences with intention. “When big projects or initiatives come up, we tend to give them to people who have proven themselves already,” she says. “But then we just keep giving the same opportunities to the same people. Women are amazing and competent. We just need to give them the chance.”

CIO, Diversity and Inclusion, IT Leadership, Women in IT

Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella observed last year that every organization in every industry will need to infuse technology into every business process and function so that they can do more with less. But he wasn’t talking about working harder or longer – he was talking about the need to apply technology to augment and amplify what we’re doing across the business, in order to be more resilient and more innovative.

On this episode of The New Work podcast, we explore the role of artificial intelligence (AI), automation, and even augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) in the new work experience.

The shift to remote and hybrid work has created a large trove of digital information about how work gets done. “We now have an incredible amount of data to reason over, and with that data, we can start to provide some really interesting value to people,” said Jared Spataro, Corporate VP for Modern Work at Microsoft. “When you ground an AI model with data about my calendar, or who I interact with, or the last meeting I went to, or things that I’m messaging people about, you start to get some truly magical experiences.”

In this episode, you’ll hear about:

Why 2023 is poised to become the “year of AI”How AI and other technologies such as AR/VR can have a significant impact on employee engagement and productivityThe importance of trust in training and deploying AI models across an organization


Josh Bersin, global industry analyst and author of “Irresistible: The Seven Secrets of the World’s Most Enduring, Employee-Focused Organizations”Jared Spataro, Corporate VP, Modern Work, MicrosoftMartin Veitch, contributing editor, Foundry/CIO (host)
Remote Work

When Pete Torres transitioned to the IT industry after serving in the military, he encountered a noticeable lack of Hispanic representation at conferences and events he attended. Even when he was young, the idea of a career in technology was “not really an option,” he says, owing in part to the IT industry’s decades-long issues with Hispanic and Latinx representation.

Now a director of engineering at Capital One, Torres is among many of his generation seeking to change the equation — and to inspire Hispanic and Latinx students to consider IT as a viable option for developing a meaningful career.

For Torres, having children of his own was a turning point, and he began to think about the importance of instilling an interest in STEM fields at a young age. He considered what he wished he knew when he was younger and looked at how to “propose this potential career path to other people that might not be aware of it,” starting him on a diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) journey that continues to this day.

Inspiring a new generation — and diversifying the talent pipeline

According to Pew Research, Hispanic and Latinx professionals fill only 8% of STEM roles in the US workforce, despite representing 17% of the total job market. Furthermore, their labor is valued less by employers, with Hispanic IT professionals earning just 83% of what their White colleagues make, a number that has dipped from 85% in 2016. All this, despite industry-wide efforts in recent years to rectify diversity issues in IT and STEM.

Pete Torres, director of engineering, Capital One

Capital One

For Torres, the path forward requires operating on two timelines at once. First, Torres has worked to strengthen diversity at a professional level at Capital One. And second is his work to help create opportunities for young people to embark on careers in tech. Through Capital One’s Hispanic employee resource group (ERG), Torres and his colleagues have spent a “lot of time reaching out to the youth and driving diversity of thought” across the organization.

This work includes helping to create a more diverse talent pipeline, as evidenced by Capital One’s efforts to connect underrepresented students at the college level with technology opportunities, as well as local chapters’ work with elementary schools. This outreach gives young people a chance to see people working in IT who share their “last name or similar upbringing, out there talking in a suit and tie — it just brings confidence and lets them know that [IT] is now a career path and an opportunity,” he says.

Qualcomm is another company diversifying its talent pipeline through programs that take the underrepresentation of Hispanic and Latinx individuals into account.

Cisco Sanchez, who got his first job at FedEx through InRoads, an internship program that creates career pathways for underserved students, worked his way up the FedEx ranks for 25 years before starting as CIO at Qualcomm just over a year ago. At FedEx, Sanchez was a sponsor of the Diversity Leadership Committee, which he has now carried over to his career at Qualcomm, where he is part of the LatinQ ERG. LatinQ focuses on identifying biases across the organization and helps ensure there are strong talent pipelines that give all employees the same roadmap to success, says Sanchez.

Cisco Sanchez, CIO, Qualcomm


One big move Qualcomm has made in its IT recruiting efforts is to avoid falling into the trap of hiring only from a handful of prestigious colleges and universities, Sanchez says. As someone who came from a nontraditional talent pipeline himself, Sanchez knows there are plenty of IT skills that can be taught to anyone who is motivated and has an interest in learning.

Plus, Sanchez says, with the rapid pace of changing technology, a four-year degree doesn’t guarantee you’ll be up to speed on the latest skills after graduation. As such, Qualcomm has shifted to looking at candidates who have different types of schooling — certificates, non-computer science degrees, and people with no experience who can be quickly trained on the latest coding skills.

“It’s this conscious effort of ‘How do we retrain our mind a bit to start to pivot into a different direction?’ When you open the ability to hire from a larger population of people, you also create the ability to have deeper and more diverse candidates,” he says.

Mentoring to make a difference

The value of mentorship and sponsorship can’t be understated when it comes to fostering and growing your career. But for underrepresented groups in the tech industry, it can be difficult to find mentors and sponsors inside and outside the organization. Mentorship is all about creating connections that help professionals better understand what it takes to go to the next level, says Tim Grijalva, president of GoDaddy LatinX technology and director of learning.

“I think that individuals that have opportunities, whether that’s been through academic, or they’ve had mentors in their life, they’ve had more exposure to understand” what it takes to develop a career, he says. “It’s about conversations. It’s about asking questions to understand how you become manager or director. For folks in the Latin community itself, it’s a challenge because I think not everybody feels that some of those higher achievements are available to them as a Latino. And it’s often hard to understand who you can ask and who you can have the conversations with to understand [a path forward in tech].”

Tim Grijalva, president of LatinX technology and director of learning, GoDaddy


In fact, there was a time when Grijalva himself wasn’t sure if he’d be able to land a job at Go Daddy without a background in engineering. But after getting a job in learning and sales, his career grew with the organization, putting him on the path to leadership.

Capital One’s Torres says he is lucky to have found strong mentorship opportunities throughout his career and credits his mentors as allies whose faith and trust in him helped give him a platform for his career. And now, Torres is paying that support forward.

“I see myself now as being in a position where I can push or pull up people, and that’s extremely important to me. The importance of having that mentorship, awareness, ability to bounce ideas off someone, and to gain perspective and understanding of the way other people think was invaluable to my growth and my development,” says Torres.

The power of ERGs and opportunities to build a path to leadership

Another way companies are helping have an impact is in facilitating — and empowering — ERGs. These groups give employees a safe space where they can connect with others who share similar backgrounds or experiences, giving them stronger connections at work. Such environments can be crucial to empowering employees to voice their opinions and give authentic and genuine feedback, which is vital in moving the company forward.

“In my experience, we come together, and we are very authentic,” says Torres of his ERG experience at Capital One. “We wear our hearts on our sleeves and it comes across very naturally. Again, that’s probably a result of our upbringing and our experiences. What I’ve learned is that [can be perceived as] somewhat intimidating by others, and that it wasn’t coming from a place of fear, it was coming from a place of lack of understanding. So I’ve spent a lot of time in my leadership career focusing on creating that safe place for people to be themselves and to be authentic.”  

ERGs also give employees a chance to connect, network, and grow their careers within the organization. A huge part of DEI is not only who and how you recruit and hire but also whether your diversity efforts continue all the way up the organizational ladder. Building diversity in leadership is about creating and exposing underrepresented groups to opportunity.

At Qualcomm, diverse hiring panels help ensure there are fewer biases in the hiring process, says Sanchez, who adds that the company’s panels reflect the diversity they want to see in the organization. Once candidates are hired, internal coding bootcamps can help open new opportunities within the organization.

As for leadership opportunities, Torres says Capital One works closely with nonprofit groups such as Hispanic IT Executive Council (HITEC) to develop leadership and emerging executive programs and tech college classes for employees to work on developing new skills.

Giving back and pushing forward

Like Torres, Grijalva also believes in the power of helping to uplift the next generation. To that end, Go Daddy’s Latinx and Technology ERG has built a partnership with a local high school in Arizona that has a majority Hispanic and Black demographic, where they review resumes of juniors and seniors.

They also help students better understand how their background and experiences can boost their resumes and even help them in interviews. Grijalva says they hold conversations with the students about how to show up to job interviews, what challenges they might face, and that “you don’t have to speak perfect English in order to nail your interview,” he says.

“Because most of the time when you’re going for a job at a job interview, leaders are looking for commitment and dedication. And by having those conversations younger, they really start understanding that it doesn’t matter much about the color of [their] skin or [their] accent in this meeting. Really what it comes down to is having a mentor showing [them] a roadmap,” Grijalva says.

Making a difference indeed.

Diversity and Inclusion, IT Leadership

As Chief Digital Officer for KPMG UK, Lisa Heneghan is charged with leading enterprise-wide transformation for the auditor and tax giant, delivering better client experiences and ensuring that KPMG is “fit for the digital age”.

“I’m responsible for all things technology related in the firm,” Heneghan says. “When you break that down in KPMG, that actually means I have all of our [2,000] client-facing technologists, our internal technology organisation, and I’m also responsible for the digital transformation of our business.”

A CDO’s focus on client outcomes

Heneghan has been at KPMG since 2011 but took on the CDO role three years ago, overseeing the technology function across the audit, advisory, deals, and tax departments. She says the role has changed over time, from establishing the appropriate technology foundations to building the right team; Heneghan has recently built out a CTO team to help develop KPMG’s three-year transformation plan.

Lisa Heneghan, CDO of KPMG UK


“When I started the job, it was more about putting in place strong foundations in terms of capability, architecture and security,” she says. “This involved understanding the landscape and identifying a route to the cloud and building an IT organisation to support the future and, critically, putting in place structure and governance to drive sustainable change.”

“Stage two was more about rolling out the tools to support our people to do their jobs – physical tools, collaboration tools – and establish new ways of working. Now, we are able to focus on our integrated value chain and how we simplify and optimise.”

Her focus now is firmly on improving experiences for KPMG staff and clients.

“I always maintain that focus on the clients: what our clients need and how we work with them,” says Heneghan, who similarly acknowledges KPMG’s auditing challenges in recent months.

“A big part of what I’ve got is our client-facing technologists. So, I spend probably half of my week working with them and working on the big transformation programmes that we’ve got for clients. The other half of my time is where I’m linking into global… to make sure we are connected, and that we can bring the value from global.”

Digital ninjas and hybrid innovation centres

KPMG’s digital transformation journey has four pillars, Heneghan says: developing the digital brand, building digital culture, ensuring the organisation has strong technology foundations and installing tools and technologies.

Strong technology foundations boil down to improving architecture, security and capability, and embedding the technology function within the business through KPMG’s team of CTOs, who have built the roadmaps for transformation. Building a digital culture, meanwhile, relies heavily on KPMG’s “digital ninjas” programme to drive the adoption and use of technology put in place.

KPMG’s Digital Ninjas are experts who offer one-on-one sessions, presentations, and respond to ad hoc IT enquiries


Since the onset of the global pandemic, and the introduction of hybrid and remote working, KPMG rolled out Microsoft Surface devices and Microsoft Teams for company-wide communication – but it quickly realised that there were differing levels of technical literacy. The auditor turned to its digital ninjas for help.

Focusing explicitly on Microsoft skills, digital ninjas offer one-on-one sessions, presentations, and a response to ad hoc enquiries on everything from how to use Teams to OneDrive and OneNote, as well as SAP’s Concur and Pointprogress’s MyTime mobile timesheets.

“We’ve now got nearly 1,000 Ninjas within the firm…in all offices in the UK. It really builds into the demographic of our organisation, where we have an average age of 28.”

“They’re people who have a day job to do, and they’re learning within those businesses, but they’re digital natives; they understand and are passionate about technology. They want their experience here to be as good as their experience at home,” Heneghan says.

Results from the Digital Ninjas programme include: 

Helping to drive 100% adoption of Microsoft Teams (equalling more than 15,000 KPMG UK colleagues using the tool). All staff now use Teams as their go-to collaboration tool.Training more than 5,000 KPMG staff in Microsoft Teams in March 2020, when the pandemic first hit and the company moved to virtual working.Training more than 500 NSPCC staff on using Microsoft products – enabling their staff to connect and support children and families who most need their support during COVID-19.Digital Ninjas are helping define and improve hybrid working culture. As one such example, in hybrid meetings, Ninjas have found it feels more inclusive if those attending virtually speak first.

KPMG has also trained 30,000 people in the programming language Python, while the professional services firm is experimenting with new ways of working through Ignition, its technology innovation, insights, and collaboration hub at its headquarters in Canary Wharf, London.

The Ignition centre facilitates sprints and innovation sessions and aids staff and partners in brainstorming more significant “complex operating model type issues”, Heneghan says.

Career progression for women in tech, plus skills gaps

Encouraging women to pursue tech careers is close to Heneghan’s heart and perhaps unsurprisingly so, given almost half of KPMGs technology workforce is now female, thanks largely to the firm’s IT’s Her Future initiative.

“We’ve had a massive increase,” she says. “We started off focusing on bringing in people as females at the graduate level, and then building that up, and then we started to focus on how do we help them to progress? Because it’s incredibly important that you keep building that pipeline.”

“As of July 2021, 43% of the overall technology teams are female. Women span a whole array of technology roles at KPMG, including data engineers, data analysts, artificial intelligence experts, developers, software testers, information security analysts, cloud engineers…the list goes on.”

IT’s Her Future initiative is now trickling into universities and colleges, too.

“We have dedicated streams which work to encourage girls from universities into technology apprentices and graduate programmes. We also hold external events for young women looking to embark on a career in STEM so they can see the options available to them at KPMG.”

The firm is now exploring other ways of working with higher education. For example, its relationship with the University of Nottingham focuses on advancing local data analytics skills and capabilities.

Specialists from the university’s Data-Driven Discovery Initiative (3Di) and KPMG are working together to develop new research and provide insight that will enhance data and analytics services for businesses, and the partnership will hold events to support the innovative ideas of small and medium sized enterprises in the East Midlands Region and provide data skills training to help close the digital skills gap.

The collaboration between KPMG and the University of Nottingham forms part of the university’s new programme, Digital Nottingham, which has ambitions to transform the East Midlands city through data science, technology and innovation.

IT Leadership

Skills shortages continue to plague the IT sector, causing UK technology job vacancies to shoot up by almost 200% since 2020, according to BCS.

Not having the right skills or team is the third biggest worry among senior IT decision-makers in the UK, with two-thirds of technology executives (66%) highlighting that their organisation’s digital transformation projects are being stalled due to struggles in recruiting IT professionals with the skills they need.

Cybersecurity is the UK tech sector’s most sought-after skill set according to the Nash Squared Digital Leadership Report, with 43% of respondents reporting a shortage, followed by big data specialists and analysts (36%), technical architects (33%) and developers (32%). Other in-demand skill sets include network engineering and devops.

Sadly, there’s no quick fix to the problem of tech skills shortages. With the biggest cause of IT skill shortfalls in the UK being a lack of STEM graduates coming through the education system, changes to public policy are key. However, there are steps that CIOs can take to begin easing recruitment challenges.

1. Change the perception of a career in IT

One of these is to work towards changing the general perception of IT careers and giving people a better understanding of how varied work in the technology sector can be.

“IT often has the perception that it’s solely focused on the lone ranger sitting in a darkened room responding to the bad guys. In terms of attracting talent, this may not appeal to those who’re searching for a career that’s people-focused and revolves around being part of a team,” says Heather Hinton, CISO of cloud-based comms company RingCentral.

Hiring, IT Leadership, IT Skills, IT Training